Stages of creating a team
At this stage, people with different expectations, needs and experiences start working together. Functional maturity (in terms of competences) and psychological maturity (in terms of maintaining relationships with people) are low. As the participants do not know each other, they require the manager to specify the structures, roles, mutual dependencies, as well as the norms in the group. The group also requires both a clear definition of the objectives of its activities and a clear statement of tasks.
At this stage, there is a great need for feedback on how each participant performs their tasks. Since the maturity in terms of competences is still low, each participant needs information about his functioning first of all? what he does well, what he does wrong and what he can do to do his job better. It is important that the information is as detailed as possible and that the team is thoroughly controlled at every stage of the task. Hence, the role of the leader at this stage is extremely important, as he controls, provides feedback and is the link between the group members.
At this stage, the functional maturity of the group members is much greater than in the previous stage. Most of the group members already have a lot of experience with the work they do.
Therefore, they do not require such detailed instruction in terms of specific tasks, they are also able to assess the quality of their work themselves. They don’t require that much control either? it can therefore be limited to consultations on how to perform specific tasks and entrusted with the responsibility for their performance.
If the group is to continue to develop, it is necessary to set before it tasks consulted in such a way that the participants would be dependent on each other in the course of their performance. Thanks to this, the process of mutual cooperation is developing, and the communication structure is also developing. The leader’s task at this stage is to initiate as many direct contacts as possible between group members.
The third phase
At this stage, the group has already reached functional maturity, and is now maturing mainly in the area of interpersonal contacts.
Most of the members of the group are independent specialists. Consequently, they do not require any training anymore and can, in principle, perform most of the tasks themselves. So there is another shift in responsibility for the tasks performed? group members are responsible for their own work. The group is also rapidly maturing in the area of interpersonal contacts, which means a significant increase in the number of conflicts between members of the group (these conflicts do not concern vision, goals or norms, they concern interpersonal contacts). There is a tendency in the group to reveal and take up conflicts, and there is also a need for effective methods of resolving them.
Therefore, the main task of the leader at this stage is to focus on interpersonal matters and help in working out ways of resolving conflicts. At this stage, he is a partner for most members of the group, with only slightly more power than the rest of the group.
The fourth phase.
At this stage, we are dealing with a mature team. It is characterized by the following features:
- clearly defined goals and tasks, both for individuals and the entire group or institution (known, understood and shared by the entire team),
- efficient flow of information between the leader and the group (asking questions, listening, drawing conclusions together)? communication,
- efficient flow of information between colleagues? group members, the
- possibility of receiving and giving support of a socio-emotional nature,
- existence and acceptance of common values (norms, goals, expectations, needs) by all members of the group, group
- relations do not hinder concentration on tasks? create an atmosphere of creative cooperation, efficient division of roles and functions within the assigned tasks (agreeing on individual suggestions or ideas as part of the implementation of a specific task), the
- ability to use and take into account individual characteristics and predispositions in sharing tasks? aimed at making the best use of all skills possessed by the members of the group (recognition by the group of individual talents, skills and strengths of its individual members),
- exchange of views and cooperation (the group does not go to extremes? on the one hand, there is no tendency to transform into a social group) on the other hand, excessive stiffness and mutual animosities do not interfere with work).
The leader’s task at this stage is to observe the group (if and how it is coping with the tasks entrusted to it). It is important, however, that he refrains from unreasonable interference and that he allows group members to act freely.
Rules of good communication with the team.
- Inform people about changes.
- Introduce procedures and simple criteria when any activities are unclear.
- Ask the team for their opinion.
- Listen to the ideas of your subordinates.
- Be the boss available? – set a time when other colleagues may come to you with problems
- Talk to your employees, try to get to know them better
- Organize team meetings during which you will communicate information about plans and changes
- Criticize only constructively
- Use more than one communication channel to communicate information
- Praise, praise and praise again for a job well done
- Provide feedback on the effects of individual and team work
- Communicate directly, do not use allusions
- Explain misunderstandings, be ready to resolve conflicts
roles These roles reflect the leading needs and mechanisms of satisfying them that determine the behavior of participants and therefore understanding them may turn out to be relatively important for the tutor. Defining model roles organizes the group’s vision and provides easy-to-use (albeit simplified) terminology. Each role can be practically used, each can have a constructive meaning for the group, provided that the person playing a given role is accepted in it (both by the group and by himself) and that he wants to be in the group, accepts its goals and principles.
This may be of importance for participants who play destructive roles in the groups.
Model characters are rarely found in real groups, but such a definition of someone’s role (? 50% jester + 35% rebel, the rest is a mediator with a slight admixture of an expert?) Can also prove useful.
INITIATOR – proposes new solutions and ideas more often than others. They may concern the task or problem being performed, as well as the organization of work or the life of the group.
CONTINUATOR – takes on new initiatives, extends them, helps in the continuation of already undertaken matters.
INFORMATION SEEKER – asks often questions and / or undertakes actions on his own to obtain information – about the task, what is happening, what needs to be done.
PROVIDER OF INFORMATION – responds to the needs of? Seeking information? and / or he himself passes the information, observations, etc. to the group.
COORDINATOR – coordinates the activities of various members of the group, it may be sharing work and some tasks between people, making sure not to deal with too many things at once, so that everyone has something to do, unnecessary not to repeat certain activities, etc.
NAVIGATOR – navigation consists in finding a position in relation to some external landmarks. In the group, the navigator reminds how far the group is from the goal, in which direction it is going, draws attention to the level of advancement of activities, how much time is left, etc.
EVALUATOR – SUMMARY – evaluates the activities of other group members, the current situation, summarizes the activities so far, generalizes the experience group.
Roles important for the coexistence and development of the group:
ENCOURAGING – motivates and persuades others to be active, stimulates action, encourages, and gives support to people who feel bad.
HARMONIZER – draws attention to the fact that everyone participates in the group’s life equally, ensures an even distribution of duties and goods, encourages people to act together, work through conflicts, tries to break the contradictions between the participants, strives for compromises.
DISCHARGING TENSIONS – in difficult situations, he tries to pay attention to their positive sides, turns them into a joke, says funny things more often than others, proposes entertaining, discharging actions.
RULES GUARD – draws attention when someone does not comply with the norms and rules applicable in the group or breaks out of common arrangements and decisions, reminds about the norms and rules of coexistence, communication, and group work.
Roles impeding the coexistence and development of the group:
BLOCKING – opposes group initiatives, undermines the legitimacy of what is happening; when personal goals conflict with group goals, he chooses the former; tries to prevent confrontation between participants, to cover up conflicts.
RECOGNITION SEEKER – regardless of what is happening in the group and what is important, draws attention to himself – reminds of his merits, demonstrates, when possible, his abilities and possibilities; he tries to win over the majority of the group, arouse admiration and interest in himself.
DOMINANT – tries to keep others from speaking; maintain a leading position in the group, uncompromising, impose his opinion, manipulate others so as to subjugate group members.
AVOIDING – does not take up group initiatives, avoids joining the group’s tasks, tries to stay aloof, does not take risks.
GOSSIER – talks to his neighbor in group discussions, usually off topic, can form subgroups, many talkative group members usually sit next to him, seems unable to keep the topic of discussion.
PLAYBOY – flaunts its lack of involvement in group processes; his actions may take the form of cynicism, nonchalance, unrefined jokes, etc.
HELP SEEKING (SIEROTKA) – tries to evoke the compassion of others, expressing excessive uncertainty, anger, confusion, depreciating his own value.
Behavior positively related to the implementation of tasks:
DISCOVERY – presenting new ideas or a new perspective on a given problem or goal, e.g.? Maybe we could look at it like this …?
BINDING – finding connections between ideas or proposals coming from different group members, for example:? What Tomek said earlier and what you are saying now are two different approaches to the same issue ..?
CLEANING – Explaining or organizing ideas put forward by other members of the group, e.g.? Do you mean that …?
URGING – urging the group to act or make decisions, stimulating them to be more effective, for example, “Over the last half an hour we’ve looked at different points of view. Now we have to make a decision?
PROVISION OF INFORMATION – e.g.? In my opinion … ?,? I heard that … ?,? I read …?.
SEARCHING FOR INFORMATION – eg? Does anyone know …?
EXPRESSION OF OPINION – e.g.? I think …?
FEEDBACK QUESTION – e.g.? What do you think?
Behaviors that support interpersonal contacts:
ENCOURAGE – showing warmth and understanding, for example, “Małgosia, I think this is important to you. Did you come up with some great ideas?
RECONCILIATION – attempts to mitigate conflict situations, for example, „I don’t think this is addressed to anyone personally.”
OBSERVATION – sharing observations about the functioning of the group, trying to improve relations in the group, e.g. „It seems that the group is divided at this point.”
MAKING COMMUNICATION – caring for everyone’s participation, encouraging passive group members to be active, e.g.? Jurek, what do you think?
RECALLING RULES – emphasizing group rules and goals to increase the effectiveness of group work, eg, „Let’s not all talk at once.”
SUPPORTING – accepting and supporting ideas and behaviors of others, eg „I agree with that”.
RELIEVING TENSIONSRelieve -tensions by using humor wisely.
Behaviors that hinder the effective functioning of the group:
AGGRESSIONinsistently -pushing one’s own point of view, resisting, attacking others.
DEPENDENCY – identification with strong personalities, reluctance to take one’s own position.
DOMINATION – striving for power or advantage, trying to control or manipulate others.
BLOCKING – excessive stubbornness, pointless arguing, returning to issues already resolved.
SEARCHING FOR COMPASSION – seeking compassion by expressing a sense of threat or low self-esteem.
Conflicts and ways of solving them
Each of us, living in a society, is involved in various kinds of relationships with other people. Family, students, company employees, and citizens of the state must cooperate, or at least coexist, in order to implement their expectations and plans. However, considering our dissimilarity, coexistence should be associated with a conflict, a situation where the simultaneous implementation of the interests of the parties involved seems impossible.
Conflict can be defined as the process in which one party makes a conscious effort to thwart the other’s aspirations by blocking the achievement of its goals or blocking actions in its interest.